Chyawanprash (also spelled chyavanaprasha, chyavanaprash, chyavanaprasam and chyawanaprash) is a cooked mixture of sugar, honey, ghee, Indian Gooseberry (amla), jam, sesame oil, berries and various herbs and spices. It is prepared as per the instructions suggested in Ayurvedic texts. Chyawanprash is widely sold and consumed in India as a dietary supplement.
In Sanskrit, the word ‘prash’ stands for a specially prepared food and ‘Chyawan’ was the name of the sage for whom this Ayurvedic nutritive formula was concocted to restore his youth & vitality. Thus the name ‘Chyawanprash’. As a health supplement, Dabur Chyawanprash can be taken by people from all age groups- kids, adults and elderly people alike for supreme health benefits.

Chyawanprash is an ancient formulation and product. Various Indian holy books like Mahabharat, Puranas etc., relate that Ashwini Kumar brothers, the twins, who were Rajvaidya (Royal Physicians) to Devas during Vedic times, first prepared this formulation for Chyawan Rishi at his Ashram on Dhosi Hill near Narnaul, Haryana, India, hence the name Chyawanprash. The first historically documented formula for chyawanprash appears in the Charaka Samhita, the ancient Ayurvedic treatise from the early first millennium BCE.

Chyawanaprash tastes sweet and sour at the same time. The taste is largely dominated by the flavors of honey, ghee (clarified butter) and amla and the smell by ghee and other spices including sandalwood, cinnamon and cardamom. Its appearance resembles semi-molten tar – a thick dark brown paste.

Chyawanaprash is usually consumed directly or along with warm milk or water . The recommended consumption is usually about 1 tsp twice a day.

It is a general health supplement and is among the best known Ayurvedic Medicine. It helps fight day to day ailments such as cough and cold. But precaution for diabetic persons because sugar percent may vary from 66% to 87% in chyawanprash company to company. It’s a good source of antioxidants.
1.When there is a change in seasons there is a chance of many viral, fungal and bacterial infections. This Ayurvedic formulation known as Chyawanprash helps in fighting against it. In this way it provides protection to the body.

2.Asthma or chronic bronchitis is not untouched by many people nowadays. If you want to cure these diseases, then Chyawanprash can be a great option. It does this by improving the functioning of the lungs.

3.Heat strokes are also reduced by continuous usage of Chyawanprash. This medicine helps to keep your heart healthier and stronger.

4.When you eat a lot, indigestion occurs. Much of the food remains undigested. Chyawanprash if taken regularly will facilitate the digestion. It will also help in the efficient absorption of nutrients from the food that you eat.

5.Any kind of constipation, nausea, gas, flatulence or even diarrhea can be cured by regular intake of this effective Ayurvedic mixture.

6.With time toxins gets accumulated in the body. This makes your blood dirty. Chyawanprash can be the best way to eliminate and purify the blood and that too naturally.
7.Many a times you face reduced memory and concentration due to which you feel frustrated. Chyawanprash works as a brain energizer and helps in enhancing your memory, focus and concentration.
8.After the age of 30, your skin starts showing the signs of aging. Wrinkling of the face and graying of hair is quite common. Chyawanprash has anti-aging property due to which it can help you to delay such signs.

9.Sexual stamina and pleasure can also be boosted by this formulation.
People who suffer from pulmonary tuberculosis can have a sigh of relief. This Ayurvedic medicine can work as a great remedy for this disease.

10.Old people and the kids lack the strength to do their day today’s activity. Regular intake Chyawanprash can help them by providing strength, energy, and efficient nourishment.
11.Any urine infections, chest infections, throat infections or gout. Chyawanprash can be the answer to all the above-said diseases.

12.Glowing skin and fairer complexion are what this Ayurvedic medicine can also provide.

The recipe of chyavanprash is mentioned in manuscripts written for ayurvedic method of treatment viz. Ashtangahridayam, Charakasamhita, Sangandharasamhita. Amla is a primary ingredient of Chyawanaprash which makes it rich in Vitamin C (445 mg/100g). The number of herbs used may vary from 25 to 80 almost 48-49 but the main ingredient of all Chyawanprash is amla.
Other chief ingredients are:
1.ashwagandha (Winter cherry)
4.bamboo manna Egyptian water lily
7.chebulic myrobalan
8.Chinese cinnamon
9.cinnamon bark
11.Indian rose chestnut mallow
13.feather foil plant (Phyllanthus niruri or Bhumiamalaki)
16.Giant potato (Ipomoea mauritiana or Kiribadu Ala)
17.Giloy (Guduchi) (Tinospora cordifolia)
18.Indian kudzu
19.Irish root
21.Long pepper (Piper longum)
22.Malabar nut (Seed of Adhatoda vasica)
23.Nut grass
24.Potassium sorbate
26.Round zedoary
28.sesame oil
29.Spreading hogweed (Boerhavia diffusa)
31.Tiger’s claw or Ice plant (Erythrina variegata)
32.Wild black gram

Chyawanprash in India and Nepal is marketed through film stars and sports persons such as Amitabh Bachchan, Shahrukh Khan, Ravi Kishan, Virendra Sehwag, and Mahendra Singh Dhoni.



Traits of Economic importance in poultry
Name: Chudamani pant
Class Roll .no. : 35
Section : A
Agriculture and Forestry University
, Rampur, Chitwan
E-mail :

In Nepal, more than 65% of people depend upon agriculture. Contribution of agricultural sector in Gross Domestic product (GDP) of Nepal is 33%. Among them contribution of livestock sector in total GDP is 26.8% and poultry subsector within livestock contributes 8% of Agriculture Gross Domestic product (AGDP) and Indigenous poultry is widely prevalent which contributes 55% of total poultry population. Poultry can convert feed efficiently in short period of time and give income in short time of period. But Nepal, Village farmers lack knowledge about poultry health and Poor husbandry practices limit production as well as income generation. Indigenous breeds of Nepal are Shakini, Ghanti khuile and Pwankh Ulte. If we are able to do Genetic improvement through selection as well as improve health husbandry, we can significantly increase the production. So for the improvement of the indigenous breed of poultry, we need to identify some economically important traits of indigenous breed which can be improved. Some important traits of indigenous breeds of poultry are Total eggs per clutch and good mothering ability. This paper is the literature review related to the Socio-economic importance of Indigenous Poultry in Nepal.
Keywords: Poultry; Nepal; Livestock; Eggs

Agriculture is the major sector of Nepalese economy. Нerefore the development of agriculture sector is key for the development of national economy. Livestock, including poultry is an integral part of the agricultural part of the agricultural production system in Nepal, providing manure and high value animal protein such as meat, milk and eggs for the human consumption. Agricultural production is the main product and more than 65% of the population depends upon agriculture . Contribution of agricultural sector in Gross Domestic product (GDP) of Nepal is 33% . Among them contribution of livestock sector in total GDP is 26.8% and poultry sub sector within livestock contributes 8% of Agriculture Gross Domestic product (AGDP) and Indigenous poultry is widely prevalent which contributes 55% of total poultry population . Farmers with a small land holding of between 0.2 and 0.5 hectares land keep almost 25% of the livestock. A distinct pivoted role of the livestock is well established in the farming system of Nepal since it functions as a supplier of mature and high value animal protein.


Human nature is such

That if you sit, they’ll say, ‘No, don’t sit.’

If you stand, ‘What’s the matter? Walk!

And if you walk, ‘Shame on you, sit down.!

If you so much as lie down, they’ll order, ‘Get up.’

If you don’t lie down, no respite, ‘ Lie down.’

I’m wasting my days getting up and sitting down.

If I’m dying right now, they speak up, ‘Live.’

If they see me living, who knows when

they’ll say, ‘Shame on you. Die!’

In fear, I secretly go on living.



‘WOMEN’ is the word within which the word ‘MEN’ Lies.

But nowadays they are being tortured by the system that are created by them.

They are nowadays are being tortured in the name of 

rape; domestic

violence; sexual harassment ; coercive use of contraceptives; female infanticide;

prenatal sex selection ; obstetric violence and mob violence; as well as harmful customary or traditional practices such as honor killings , dowry violence, female genital mutilation , marriage by abduction and

forced marriage. Some forms of violence are perpetrated or condoned by the state such as war rape; sexual violence and sexual slavery during conflict; forced sterilization ; forced abortion; violence by the police and authoritative personnel; stoning and

flogging . Many forms of VAW, such as

trafficking in women and forced prostitution are often perpetrated by organized criminal networks.

In the third world country like NEPAL,INDIA … still there is much more problem related to the women and girl violence. 

There are many girls that are deprived of the education and are only Limited in the housewives. 

They are being tortured each and every second in the name of BOKSHI.

NOW I have a recently heard the news about the same topic BOKSHI ,A woman was killed by the villagers by blaming her as BOKSHI and the irrelevant event occur.

By keeping in mind that the girls/women are our mother sister we should respect them.  They should be sent to school instead of sending them to jungle for cuttinggrasses or firewood. 

They should be in the office as officers instead of limited them in the housewives. 

If one knows about mother thenyou will know about the importance of the

girls/women in the society.

I have said ‘NO VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ‘ By treating as gender equality and equality, by respecting the A’s mother or sister .

By sending them to school or office instead of sending to jungle or limited in housewives.


Ginger Research in AFU

कृषि तथा वन विज्ञान विश्वविद्यालय रामपुर चितवनमा विषयगत पढाई मात्र हुन्छ सैधान्तिक अभ्यास हुदैन, साथै राजनीति मात्र हुन्छ पढाई खासै कहीं पनि हुदैन, विद्यार्थी सधै आफुबीच झैझगडा गर्छन, उन्नतिमुलक काम  केहीं गर्दैनन् भन्ने कुरालाई चिरफार गर्दै  एमाले निकट विद्यार्थी संघठन अखिल नेपाल राष्ट्रिय स्वतन्त्र विद्यार्थी युनियन (अनेरास्ववियु) र प्राविधिक विद्यार्थी संघ रामपुर चितवनमा आबद्ध विद्यार्थीहरुले क्याम्पस परिशरमा खाली रहेको जग्गामा व्यावसायिक अदुवा खेति सुरु गरेका छन् |


आफ्नो विषयगत पढाई बाहेकको खाली रहने समयलाई उपयोग गर्दै विनोद दाहाल, बिशाल मोदी, चुडामणि पन्त, सन्तोष भारती, लगाएतको टोलीले व्यावसायिक अदुवा खेति सुरु गरेका हुन् | विश्वविद्यालय को केहि सहयोग अनि अग्रज दाजुहरु नारायण ढकाल, किरण तिमिल्सिना को पहलमा यो खेति गर्न प्रेरणा मिलेको उनीहरुको भनाइ छ | कक्षामा पढाईएका र किताबमा पढेका ज्ञानलाई स्व स्फुर्त रुपमा व्यवहारमा उतार्न यस कार्यले ठुलो सहयोग पुगेको व्यावसायिक अदुवा खेति प्रोजेक्ट का आभियेंता बिशाल मोदीले जनाए | पढेर भन्दा गरेर धेरै बुझिन्छ भन्ने कुराको ज्वालंत उदाहरण कृषि पढ्दै गरेका यी विद्यार्थी हरुको कार्यबाट चरितार्थ पार्न सकिन्छ |


विश्वविद्यालय एउटा उद्योग हो, त्येस माथि पनि कृषि विश्वविद्यालय बार्षिक करौडौको आम्दानी गर्न सकिने ठाऊ हो | २८० हेक्टरमा फैलिएको यस विश्वविद्यालयमा धेरै जग्गा बाझो छ साथै खेतीयोग्य जग्गा पनि खेति गर्नै नमिल्ने गरि झाडी नै झाडीले भरिएको छ | यो बाझो जग्गा अनि मुल्येहिन र अर्थहीन राजनीतिमा समय खर्च गर्ने विद्यार्थी बर्गलाई उपयोग गर्न सक्ने हो भने विश्वविद्यालयमा  पढ्ने  विद्यार्थी वर्गले पढ्दा पढ्दै केहि आम्दानी  गर्न सक्छन साथै घोकन्ते विद्या भन्दा व्यवहारउपयोगी शिक्षा आर्जन गरेर देशलाई चाहिने कुशल कृषि विज्ञता हासिल गर्छन | येदि विश्वविद्यालयको नेतृत्वकर्ताले उचित नियमहरु बनाएर विश्वविद्यालयको खाली जग्गा विद्यार्थीलाई खेति गर्नको लागि हस्तान्तरण गर्ने हो भने भने विश्वविद्यालय एउटा उत्पादनशील उद्धोगको रुपमा विकसित हुन्छ | येहीं कुरालाई मध्येनजर गर्दै एमाले निकटका विद्यार्थी वर्गले विश्वविद्यालयमा यो सकारात्मक कामको सुरुवात गरेको कुरा यस कामका मुख्य अभियेंता नारायण ढकालले बताउनुभयो |


रास्ट्रिय अदुवाबालि अनुसंदान कार्येक्रम, कपुरकोट , सल्यान बाट विद्यार्थीले आफ्नै लगानीमा वीउ अदुवा रामपुर क्याम्पस सम्म झिकाएर यस कामको थालनी गरेका हुन् | यस कामलाई उत्पादन संगसंगै अनुसन्धानलाई पनि अगाडी बढाइएको छ | पुरातनवादी खेति भन्दा पनि  आधुनिक विभिन्न तरिका अपनाई छुट्टा छुट्टै प्लोटमा विभिन्न तवरले अनुसन्धानपनि हुने र उत्पादन पनि हुने तरिकाले कामलाई अगाडी बढाइएको छ | अदुवाको उत्पादन कसरी बढी गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने अनुसन्धानको अर्को पाटो हो | उत्पादन बढाउनको लागि अदुवामा त्रैकोदर्मा ढुशी संगसंगै खेति गरिएको छ | उत्पादन भएको अदुवालाई केहि हदसम्म नजिकैको बजारमा पुर्याउने साथै अदुवाको केन्दी बनाएर बजारमा लगिने कुराको अवगत अदुवा टोलीले गरायो | रामपुर क्याम्पस तेस्मथी पनि खाली समय र खाली जग्गाको उपयोग गरेर गरिएको यस काम क्याम्पसमै पहिलो प्रयास हो र यो पहिलो प्रयासका थालनीकर्ता अखिल र प्राविधिक विद्यार्थी संघका प्रगतिशील भाईहरु भएका छन् |  


विश्वविद्यालयले उचित नियमहरु बनाई त्येहीं अध्ययन गर्ने विद्यार्थीहरुलाई यस्तै उत्पादनशील काममा लगाउन सकेमा विश्वविद्यालय एउटा उद्धोग्को रुपमा मात्र बिकसित नभई  नेपालकै नमुना विश्वविध्यालयको रुपमा अहिले चिनिने भन्दा फरक किसिमले जनमानसमा चिनिन सक्थ्यो !14976047_1159353560849474_142366641_o


विश्वविद्यालयलाई उद्धोगको रुपमा चलाउन सकिन्छ, यसलाई कसरि चलाउने भन्ने कुरा नेतृत्व तहमा रहेका पदाधिकारी मा भर पर्छ | कृषि पढ्न आउने विद्यार्थीको भर्ना शुल्क बडाएर भन्दा पनि कृषि पढ्ने विद्यार्थीलाई राजनीतिबाट बिमुख राखी यस्तै उत्पादनशील काममा लगाउन  सके विश्वविद्यालयको स्वरूप नै परिवर्तन हुन्थ्यो |

#copied from #TSAN AFU 


While studying in the third semester in agriculture and forestry university rampur chitwan in the year 2016 June we plant the soybean, cowpea and sunflower cultivation is done for studying the morphology ,flower behoviour and root nodules formation and structure in the leguminous plant in the course of grain legumes and oilseed crop cultivation under the supervision of suman DhaKal underthe DEPART OF AGRONOMY.

The plot of area about 1.8 bigha land was first of all divided into 165 plot resulting in the single plot for each students. The area of each plot is 20 metre square. And between the plot the alley of 1 meter width was left behind for the movement and working in the plot.
Then the tillage operation was performed by ploughing and digging by the spade and the large clumps of soil was the pulverized into the powder and the weed present in the field were removed for the proper growth and development of the crops.

The bacterium, Bradyrhizobium

japonicum , colonizes the roots and

establishes a nitrogen fixing

symbiosis. This high magnification

image shows part of a cell with

single bacteroids within their

symbiosomes. In this image,

endoplasmic reticulum, dictysome

and cell wall can be seen.

Nitrogen fixation is a process in

which nitrogen (N 2 ) in the

atmosphere is converted into

ammonia (NH 3 ). Atmospheric

nitrogen or molecular dinitrogen

(N 2 ) is relatively inert: it does not

easily react with other chemicals to

form new compounds. The fixation

process frees nitrogen atoms from

their triply bonded diatomic form,

N≡N, to be used in other ways.

Nitrogen fixation, natural and

synthetic, is essential for all forms

of life because nitrogen is required

to biosynthesize basic building

blocks of plants, animals and other

life forms, e.g., nucleotides for

DNA and RNA , the coenzyme

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

for its role in metabolism

(transferring electrons between

molecules), and amino acids for

proteins . Therefore, as part of the

nitrogen cycle , it is essential for

agriculture and the manufacture of

fertilizer . It is also an important

process in the manufacture of

explosives (e.g. gunpowder ,

dynamite , TNT, etc.). Nitrogen

fixation occurs naturally in the soil

by nitrogen fixing bacteria affiliated

with some plants (for example,

Azotobacter and legumes ). Some

nitrogen-fixing bacteria have very

close relationships with plants,

referred to as symbiotic nitrogen

fixation. Looser relationships

between nitrogen-fixing bacteria

and plants are often referred to as

associative or non-symbiotic, as

seen in nitrogen fixation occurring

on rice roots. It also occurs

naturally in the air by means of

lightning . 

All biological nitrogen fixation is

done by way of nitrogenase

metallo enzymes which contain iron,

molybdenum, or vanadium .

Microorganisms that can fix

nitrogen are prokaryotes (both

bacteria and archaea , distributed

throughout their respective

kingdoms) called diazotrophs .

Some higher plants, and some

animals ( termites ), have formed

associations ( symbiosis ) with


The number andintensity of formation  of root nodule is effected by following factors :

  1. The available nitrogen in the the soil I.e higher the level of nitrogen the lesser is the formation of root nodules due to the luxury consumption.
  2. The stress conditions of the crop i.e higher the stress of the plant greater the formation of root nodules. 
  3. The oxygen concentration in the soil. 
  4. PH -5.6-8.0


Daman  a place where temperate climate is found and is 2320m above the mean sea level 

One of the wonderful place where there is cold climate .

Where one can get the enjoyment of environment.

One where every person becomes greedy of the nature.

Where one can get detail information about the horticulture plants mainly Apple. 

The real beauty of nature can be seen from the viewing tower.

The location of the dawan is makwanpur district of Nepal. 

Another most important thing that I have seen is bottle gardening in the form of hanging basket.

The bottles of coke ,fanta,sprites etc were cut from the middle leaving a small hole at the middle where there is the place for plantation of the plant is leaved behind.

The hole is filled with a little soil for the proper growth and development of the plant.

In this bottle gardening  the bottle are placed in the horizontal position and small hole is made at the middle and filled with the soil .

The filler plant can be flower ,vegetable or foliage flowering plant.

This bottle gardening helps in the re-use of the plastic bottles and help the environment from being polluted by increasing the green scenery that help to increase the absorption of co2 and increase the output of oxygen. 

This method of vertical bottle gardening is helped by many projects that are actively involved in the collections of the plastic bottles which can be seen in the various places.

These collected bottles can be Reused , Recycled .But the best and eco-friendly method for the proper management of plastic bottles is BOTTLE GARDENING. 

The total waste production per day in the country is more than 700 metric tonne per day among which 

 71%=organic waste 

 12.5%=plastic and products 

7% =paper and products 


And the 12.5% of plastic more than 50% is bottle waste produced from the shoft drinks like coca-cola, pepsi,mirinda,fanta,sprite,mountain dew..etc and from  medicine bottles.

And this is one and the best method for the                 -proper management of waste

    –   Beautification of nature.

 -pollution control etc 


MOther’s hold their children’s hand for a while but in their heart forever. 

Motherhood is priced ;of God ,at a price no man may dare/ To lessen or misunderstand.

Mother- that was the bank where we deposited all our hurt and worries. 

No gift to mother 

Can ever equal her gift to us -our life

Mothers are fonder than father of their children because they are more certain to their life.

Mother  is one  who always Hides their tears from falling but always makes us happy. 

My wish with my mom:

  1. One day I will make my mom happy. 

  2. I will be a good person someday someway. 
  3. I have a dream that one day I would ease for a pilgrimage to my parents.
  4. I want to make them feel proud of their son.

  5. I will be with you forever one day,as your remembrance is lingering in my each second.